Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychological disorder that primarily impacts the development of children and adolescents. The disorder is characterized by significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and difficulty in controlling behavioral and verbal impulses.

Understanding ADHD

ADHD is one of the most prevalent developmental disorders in children and adolescents, affecting about 3-5% of this population. The disorder often persists into adulthood, potentially affecting social, academic, and professional functioning.

Children with ADHD often exhibit a constant engagement with activities, even if they do not complete them, due to their continuous distraction by new stimuli. They often struggle with restlessness, difficulty sitting still, and an inability to wait for their turn. These manifestations are a result of their inability to control their responses to environmental stimuli and to focus their attention on a specific task.

Exploring the Causes

The exact causes of ADHD remain unknown. However, it is believed to be a result of a combination of various factors, including environmental, social, behavioral, biochemical, and genetic elements. Certain genes that regulate the level of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitters appear to play a role in the development of ADHD. These alterations primarily affect the functions of specific brain areas that regulate attention.

ADHD often runs in families and is frequently associated with other behavioral or conduct disorders. Environmental factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol abuse during pregnancy, low birth weight, premature birth, and neurological damage due to obstetric or head trauma are also considered contributing factors.

Symptoms and Complications

ADHD typically begins in childhood or preadolescence. The symptoms of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which are more pronounced than expected for a child of the same age and developmental stage. Depending on the predominant characteristic, ADHD can be categorized into three variants: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and combined form.

ADHD can affect academic performance, social behavior, and cognitive strategies. The disorder can also be associated with learning difficulties, anxiety and depression, nocturnal enuresis, and sleep disorders. In some cases, non-specific neurological deficits, sensory dysfunctions, and motor impairment may also be present. Difficulties in social and emotional relationships can persist into adulthood.


The diagnosis of ADHD is established by a medical professional specialized in pediatric neuropsychiatry, through the satisfaction of certain clinical criteria. The symptoms must manifest themselves for six consecutive months, in at least two different life contexts (such as school and family).

In adults, ADHD can present with a variety of symptoms, but to make a diagnosis, it is necessary to identify the presence of the disorder during childhood.

Therapy and Treatment

The treatment of ADHD is multifaceted, involving behavioral therapies, psycho-educational interventions, medications, and lifestyle changes. The goal of these interventions is to reduce the symptoms and improve the dysfunctions caused by the condition.

Behavioral and psychological therapies are central to the treatment of ADHD. These interventions include maintaining a daily schedule, setting small achievable goals, minimizing distractions, and rewarding positive behavior.

In some cases, these therapies are complemented by the use of specific medications. The most commonly used drugs include methylphenidate and atomoxetine. These medications help control the symptoms of ADHD but do not cure the disorder.

ADHD is a chronic condition that requires early intervention to prevent the development of persistent affective-relational deficits, conduct disorders, or learning delays. With the right treatment and support, individuals with ADHD can lead successful and fulfilling lives.

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