Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, Causes, and Manifestations

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can occur following a traumatic event. It is characterized by severe anxiety, intrusive memories, and a constant feeling of fear, even when no actual threat is present. This article will delve into the symptoms of PTSD, how it manifests, and the causes behind this disorder.

What is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

PTSD is a mental health condition that can develop after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event. This could be a life-threatening incident, physical or sexual assault, natural disaster, or any other event that causes extreme fear, horror, or helplessness.

It's important to note that trauma can also affect individuals indirectly. For instance, witnessing a traumatic event or the serious illness or injury of a loved one can also lead to PTSD. The perception of the traumatic event is highly subjective, and individuals may develop symptoms even if the event isn't considered significant by others.

The prevalence of PTSD is estimated to be around 2% of the population. However, considering that many cases may go unreported or undiagnosed, the actual prevalence could be as high as 10%. Young adults are identified as the demographic most affected by PTSD.

Causes of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

PTSD can manifest in a variety of ways, often depending on the individual and the nature of the traumatic event they experienced. Some people may experience intense anxiety in situations that remind them of the trauma, while others may feel a constant sense of danger. Some people may feel detached from others and the world around them, while others may have difficulty controlling their emotions.

The exact cause of PTSD is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of:

  • Exposure to Trauma: The likelihood of developing PTSD increases with the intensity and proximity to the traumatic event. However, not everyone who experiences a traumatic event develops PTSD.
  • Individual Factors: These include one's genes, mental health history, personality traits, and how one's brain regulates the chemicals and hormones released in response to stress.
  • Environmental Factors: These include the severity and duration of the traumatic event, one's reaction to it, and the support (or lack thereof) received after the event.

It is important to note that PTSD can be a debilitating disorder, but it is also a treatable one. If you or someone you know is struggling with symptoms of PTSD, it is crucial to seek help from a mental health professional. There are various treatment options available, including psychotherapy (talk therapy), medications, or a combination of both. With the right treatment and support, people with PTSD can recover and lead fulfilling lives.

Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

The symptoms of PTSD can be quite diverse and may vary from person to person. However, they generally express psychological distress and suffering, and typically begin within a few weeks of the traumatic event. Sometimes, the symptoms may not emerge until years later.

Re-experiencing Symptoms

One of the main symptoms of PTSD is the re-experiencing of the traumatic event. This can occur through intrusive and persistent thoughts, images, or perceptions, often presenting themselves as if the traumatic event is happening all over again. This can lead to flashbacks, recurring dreams, and psychological reactivity to reminders of the trauma.

Avoidance Symptoms

Individuals with PTSD often try to avoid situations, places, people, thoughts, and sensations that remind them of the traumatic event. This avoidance can manifest as difficulty in remembering the event, feelings of detachment from others, and a lack of interest in previously enjoyed activities.

Hyperarousal Symptoms

Hyperarousal symptoms include irritability, anxiety, anger outbursts, exaggerated startle responses, concentration problems, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms can make everyday life challenging and may lead to additional mental health issues, such as depression.

Negative Changes in Thinking and Mood

This may include feelings of hopelessness, negative thoughts about oneself or the world, memory problems, and difficulty maintaining close relationships.

Changes in Physical and Emotional Reactions

Symptoms may include being easily startled or frightened, self-destructive behavior, trouble sleeping or concentrating, and overwhelming guilt or shame.

DSM-V Diagnostic Criteria for PTSD

The DSM-V outlines five fundamental criteria, labeled A through H, for diagnosing PTSD. These criteria serve as a descriptive tool rather than a guarantee of therapeutic results.

Criterion A: Exposure to Traumatic Event

The individual must have been exposed to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence in one or more of the following ways:

  • Direct exposure to the traumatic event
  • Witnessing the traumatic event in person
  • Learning that the traumatic event occurred to a close family member or friend
  • Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event (for example, first responders dealing with gruesome details of traumatic events)

Criterion B: Re-experiencing Intrusive Symptoms

The person must experience intrusive symptoms related to the traumatic event. These symptoms include:

  • Intrusive memories
  • Distressing dreams related to the event
  • Dissociative reactions (such as flashbacks) where the person feels or acts as if the traumatic event is happening again
  • Intense psychological distress or physiological reactions when exposed to cues that resemble an aspect of the traumatic event

Criterion C: Avoidance

The individual must engage in avoidance behaviors, trying to avoid memories, thoughts, or feelings associated with the traumatic event. This can include avoiding external reminders, thoughts, or feelings associated with the trauma.

Criterion D: Negative Alterations in Cognitions and Mood

There must be persistent negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event, which may include:

  • Inability to remember important aspects of the traumatic event
  • Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world
  • Persistent negative emotional state
  • Diminished interest or participation in significant activities
  • Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others

Criterion E: Alterations in Arousal and Reactivity

The individual must experience alterations in arousal and reactivity, such as:

  • Irritability or aggressive behavior
  • Risky or destructive behavior
  • Hypervigilance
  • Exaggerated startle response
  • Problems with concentration
  • Sleep disturbances

Criterion F: Duration

The symptoms described above must persist for more than one month.

Criterion G: Functional Significance

The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Criterion H: Exclusion

The symptoms are not due to medication, substance use, or other illnesses.

Treatment of PTSD


  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): This is a widely used and effective approach for PTSD. CBT helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors related to the traumatic event.
  2. Exposure Therapy: Gradual and controlled exposure to thoughts, feelings, and situations related to the trauma helps reduce anxiety and fear over time.
  3. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): EMDR involves guided eye movements while recalling the traumatic event to help process and reduce distressing memories.
  4. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT): Specifically designed for children and adolescents, TF-CBT combines cognitive-behavioral techniques with trauma-sensitive interventions.


  1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) or Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): Antidepressant medications can help alleviate symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances.
  2. Prazosin: Particularly helpful for nightmares associated with PTSD, prazosin is an alpha-blocker that may improve sleep.

Group Therapy

  1. Peer Support Groups: Sharing experiences with others who have gone through similar traumas can provide a sense of connection, understanding, and support.
  2. Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Conducted in a group setting, this therapy allows individuals to learn and practice coping strategies together.

Mindfulness-Based Interventions

  1. Mindfulness Meditation: Practices such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can help individuals become more aware of their thoughts and emotions without being overwhelmed by them.


Post-traumatic stress disorder is a complex mental health disorder that can have a profound impact on an individual's life. Understanding the symptoms and seeking professional help is crucial for managing the condition and improving quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with symptoms of PTSD, it is important to reach out to a mental health professional for help.

Please note that this blog post is intended to provide general information about PTSD and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Always consult with a healthcare provider for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

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The Wellyme Team

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